Web Apps

Understanding the Layered Architecture of Web Apps

Web Apps are programs designed to be run through the World Wide Web, using the web browser to serve as the user.


They are now an essential part of daily lives, offering a broad array of services, from banking and shopping to entertainment, social media, and more.


One of the most important principles in developing web applications is to understand layered architecture.


Layered architecture is a pattern of design that divides applications into distinct layers, each of which has particular responsibilities.


This division of duties makes it easier to build a modular and easily maintained application, which makes it simpler for developers to introduce new functions or modify the system without affecting the whole system.


Layers of a web-based application typically comprise layers of presentation, the application layer the data access layer, and the data storage layer.


Each layer is a distinct collection of protocols, technologies, and standards utilized to construct, manage and display information.


The distinction between the layers is rational and communication between them is accomplished through a clearly defined interface.


In this blog, we’ll take an in-depth examine each layer and examine the technology as well as protocols and standards employed in the development of web applications.


Understanding the layers of web applications can help developers design and build web applications with ease.

The Layered Architecture of Web Apps


1. Presentation Layer

The layer of presentation, also referred to by the term user interface (UI) layer is the component of the web application users interact with.


The primary responsibility of the presentation layer is to provide information to the user in a structured and understandable format.


Many technologies are utilized for the display layer in order to build the user interface for an online application. They include:

  • HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) The markup language that is used to build the structure of a website page which includes headings, paragraph lists, hyperlinks, and headings.
  • CSS (Cascading Style Sheets): A stylesheet language that is used to regulate the layout and appearance of elements of a website. It can be employed to apply styles, such as colors as well as fonts and spacing to elements that are created using HTML.
  • JavaScript is a programming language that permits an interactive element to be created on a web page including pop-ups, forms, or image sliders. JavaScript is often utilized alongside HTML or CSS to build interactive websites.
  • JavaScript Frameworks Popular frameworks like AngularJS, React, and Vue.js are used extensively for web development in order to build the interactive front end of the web-based application. They aid in the creation of reusable UI components as well as manage the status that the app is in.


In the presentation layer, the data is transferred through to the Layer of Application Layer into the UI using various methods such as AJAX, Fetch, and others methods like these.


It is important to remember that presentation layers are accountable for showing the information and handling input by the user and shouldn’t contain any process or logic for processing or keeping information.


This allows for a clear separation of duties and makes it simpler to update and maintain the Web Apps.


2. Application Layer

It is also referred to by its business logic and is located between the layer of presentation and the layer for data access.


Its primary responsibility is to manage the management and processing of data, which includes validation of data, calculations, and interactions with databases.


A variety of technologies are used within the layer of application in order to take care of the responsibilities of an application layer, such as:

  • Server-side scripting languages: These are languages that run on servers and comprise popular choices like PHP, ASP.NET, and Java. These languages enable you to develop dynamic web pages and manage input from users as well as retrieve data from databases.
  • Web Application Frameworks: They offer a framework and set of tools to build web-based applications. They’re usually built with some of the server-side scripting languages. Some examples include Ruby on Rails (Ruby), Express.js (JavaScript), and Django (Python).
  • Servers for application: They offer an environment for applications to run. They additionally handle tasks such as managing connections to databases and processing multiple requests in addition to managing data from sessions. Examples of this include Apache Tomcat and Microsoft IIS.

This layer takes inputs from the Presentation layer, then processes them, and then transmits this information back to the Data Access Layer to carry out any data operations.


Additionally, it receives information from the access layer and then processes it prior to passing it on to the layer of presentation to render.


In short, this layer of application is accountable for the process and logic of the web-based application. It serves as an intermediary between the application layer as well as the layer for data access.


This separation creates a clear separation of responsibility and makes it much easier to update and maintain the application.


3. Data Access Layer

The layer that handles data access will manage interactions between the application layer and the storage layer. It offers a variety of interfaces and methods that allow the application to manipulate and access the database data.


A few of the techniques and frameworks used commonly in the data access layer are:

  • The Object Relational Mapping (ORM) frameworks offer a method for the application to interface with databases using methods and objects instead of writing pure SQL queries. For instance, examples are Hibernate (Java) as well as Entity Framework (C#).
  • Libraries for database connectivity: They offer an application with the ability to communicate with the database and run queries. Some examples include JDBC (Java) as well as ADO.NET (C#).
  • Data Access Object (DAO) pattern is the name of a pattern that specifies an array of techniques for manipulating and accessing data within the database. It permits the isolation of the complicated data access logic, separating its business and application logic away from the database storage process.


The data access layer takes calls from applications, converts them into database commands, and then retrieves information directly from databases.


It maps the data that is retrieved from the database into the objects utilized to run the applications layer which allows the business logic to modify the data.


Separating the layer for data access in the app layer makes to create a more flexible and modular design for the application.


By insuring the logic for data access within the layer for data access, it is easier to alter the database without impacting the other components part of the app.


It also provides better security of data, since the layer that accesses data can manage tasks like cleansing and validation in order to stop SQL injections.


4. Data Storage Layer

The layer that stores data has the responsibility of managing physical storage for information used by Web Apps.


It comprises the Database Management System (DBMS) and physical storage devices like hard drives, as well as cloud storage.


The most well-known DBMSs that are used in web-based applications are:


  • MySQL is an open-source relationship-based database management software (RDBMS) that is well-known for its accessibility and reliability. It’s extensively utilized in web-based applications and works alongside a range of languages for programming.
  • Oracle is robust and rich in features RDBMS which is commonly used in enterprise-level applications. It is renowned for its scalability and performance.
  • MS SQL Server: A RDBMS designed and sold by Microsoft which is often used in the ASP.NET framework.
  • MongoDB is a NoSQL Database Management System. It makes use of documents for storing data. It is frequently utilized in applications that have to manage large quantities of non-structured data.

The data storage layer is accessed through the data access layer, and the data is stored in a specific format like tabular(relational) or non-tabular(non-relational) form.


It is accountable for maintaining its integrity and consistency and security of data, as well as providing mechanisms for data recovery in the event of failure.


In short, it is the layer responsible for physical storage as well as management of data that is used by the web-based application.


The DBMS and the storage devices that are used in this layer may have an enormous impact on the efficiency and scalability of the application.


The selection of the correct DBMS, as well as storage method, is essential to the overall performance that the program.



The layered structure of Web Apps is an important concept that guides the development and design of the latest web-based applications.


It allows for a clear separation of the concerns, which allows the creation of a modular and easily maintained application.


Four layers in a Web Apps are the layer of presentation. It also includes the application layer and data access layer and data storage layer.


Each layer comes with its own set of protocols, technologies protocol, standards, protocols, and protocols that are used to generate and manage, as well as display data.


It is the layer that controls user interaction with the application. It is built using techniques like HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. It is the application layer that handles business logic as well as the processing of the application.


It’s constructed using techniques like server-side scripting languages as well as web frameworks for application development.


It is the layer that manages the interactions between Web Apps and data storage layers. It is developed using techniques like ORM frameworks and database connectivity libraries.


The layer responsible for data storage handles the actual storage as well as management data and comprises storage devices, the DBMS as well as storage equipment.


Understanding the layers of Web Apps is essential for web developers since it allows them to create and develop more reliable and durable applications.


It also assists developers to comprehend the strengths and weaknesses of the various technologies utilized in the development of Web Apps and select the most appropriate tools for the job that is at hand.


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